I having some trouble understanding your assignment. Abstracts precede a research paper and consist of a single paragraph briefly outlining the research objectives, methodology, and results. What I see seems to be a short argumentative essay, not an abstract. Typically such short papers wouldn’t feature a methodology in the sense that you aren’t gathering quantitative or qualitative data, but rather focusing on key sub arguments or examples to support a thesis. It would also be very challenging to conduct research in four pages. Did your professor set out any additional parameters besides the information you shared in the online submission form that would provide insight on what they expect from this paper?
Unfortunately, since I am having trouble reconciling what I see in the paper versus what you describe in the questions for your online submission, I am not sure how to advise on some of your concerns, i.e. does the paper show methodology. I am wondering, did your instructor specifically state that you had to include a methodology in this paper? I understand the limits of online feedback make it challenging to navigate through these points together. If you like, one of our advisors would be happy to meet with you over Zoom in order to have a discussion regarding the assignment and how we can support you.
In the meantime, my thoughts on the assignment would be to treat it as a short argumentative paper, structured around an introductory paragraph with thesis, supporting body paragraphs (typically 3-4 paragraphs, 200-250 words in length) and conclusion. I already see elements of this structure in your paper, but I am not seeing a clear connection between what I identify as your thesis and the content of your supporting body paragraphs. I understand I may be misinterpreting your thesis, but I identified the sentence below as embodying the main argument of your paper.
The transformation of space and the action associated with it allow, in a certain sense, to expand the concept of “chapel.
My interpretation is that you are arguing that Renaissance chapels expanded the understanding of what makes up or is included in a chapel in comparison to previous works. If I have accurately identified and interpreted your thesis, I would suggest reviewing each body paragraph and help orient the reader by making it clear in the first sentence of the paragraph how the particular example you are discussing expands the parameters of what a Renaissance chapel is or contains. In its current form, I am having trouble forming any connections between the introductory paragraph and the supporting body paragraphs. At times, it seems like the body paragraphs are arguing or describing something different from what is outlined in the introduction. My main concern would be to work out how we can build stronger coherency between your thesis and your body paragraphs, and I think the best way to do that would be to include explicit statements in your body paragraphs that connect back to the thesis statement.
Many of the technical terms and ideas in the essay are unfamiliar to me. Either we must assume you are writing for a more knowledgeable audience or you may have to work through the technical information more slowly and take the time to define certain terms. My impression is that you may be covering more content than is expected in such a short paper– is it possible to limit the breadth of your content in order to focus in more detail on some limited examples?
This what Professor ask look at reference below and to be
Essays need to include:
- Offer a clear explanation of your research question
- Refer to above section for more information
2) Research Process and Reflection
a. Explain your methodology (example, queer theory)
b. You may also not any potential research problems
c. Include a reflection on why this topic is important to your artistic or academic interests.
3) Summarize 3 sources connected to your research topic
a. 2 sources must be academic
b. 1 source may be a web-based, but most have academic purpose, like inventory of buildings, artists, plans, etc.
the reference below form website link that given to writer:
Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper
Definition and Purpose of Abstracts
An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:
• an abstract lets readers get the gist or essence of your paper or article quickly, in order to decide whether to read the full paper;
• an abstract prepares readers to follow the detailed information, analyses, and arguments in your full paper;
• and, later, an abstract helps readers remember key points from your paper.
It’s also worth remembering that search engines and bibliographic databases use abstracts, as well as the title, to identify key terms for indexing your published paper. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.
If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. So in addition to following the advice on this page, you should be sure to look for and follow any guidelines from the course or journal you’re writing for.
The Contents of an Abstract
Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract. And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.
Here are the typical kinds of information found in most abstracts:
- the context or background information for your research; the general topic under study; the specific topic of your research
- the central questions or statement of the problem your research addresses
- what’s already known about this question, what previous research has done or shown
- the main reason(s), the exigency, the rationale, the goals for your research—Why is it important to address these questions? Are you, for example, examining a new topic? Why is that topic worth examining? Are you filling a gap in previous research? Applying new methods to take a fresh look at existing ideas or data? Resolving a dispute within the literature in your field? . . .
- your research and/or analytical methods
- your main findings, results, or arguments
- the significance or implications of your findings or arguments.
Your abstract should be intelligible on its own, without a reader’s having to read your entire paper. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.
When to Write Your Abstract
Although you might be tempted to write your abstract first because it will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s a good idea to wait to write your abstract until after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.
What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts.
The humanities sample below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past (the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the 1970s and 80s) and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article.
From the humanities
Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications
Emily Callaci. “Street Textuality: Socialism, Masculinity, and Urban Belonging in Tanzania’s Pulp Fiction Publishing Industry, 1975-1985.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 59, no. 1, 2017, pp. 183-210.
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