The most well-known framework on cultural values was derived from a landmark study in the late 1960s and early 1970s by Geert Hofstede, who analyzed data from 88,000 IBM employees from 72 countries in 20 languages. His research showed that employees working in different countries tended to prioritize different values, and those values clustered into several distinct dimensions. Those dimensions began with just four categories, but have been expanded in recent years to include:
- power distance
- uncertainty avoidance
- short-term vs. long-term orientation (or pragmatic vs. normative) and most recently
- indulgence vs. restraint
Begin the SLP by reading:
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.
Session Long Project
First, choose a country outside of the United States. Then, drawing on the material in the background readings and doing additional research, please prepare a paper that addresses how you would adapt your leadership approach to lead a group based upon Geert Hofstede’s six dimensions if you were the CEO of a multinational organization. For example, how would you adapt your behavior if it was an individualistic or collectivist environment? Would you implement a flat structure if it was a high or low power distance policy? What leadership style would be most appropriate for that culture? Make sure to address all six of Hofstede’s dimensions. Please be creative and provide examples to justify why you would make such decisions.
Your paper should be short (2-3 pages, not including the cover sheet and references) and to the point. You are expected to deal with these issues in an integrated fashion, rather than treating them as a series of individual questions to be answered one by one and left at that.
SLP Assignment Expectations
Your paper will be evaluated using the following five criteria:
- Assignment-Driven Criteria (Precision and Breadth): Does the paper fully address all Keys to the Assignment? Are the concepts behind the Keys to the Assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements?
- Critical Thinking (Critical Thinking and Depth): Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis?
- Business Writing (Clarity and Organization): Is the paper well written (clear, developed logically, and well organized)? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are section headings included in all papers? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding to the Keys to the Assignment, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations?
- Effective Use of Information (Information Literacy and References): Does the paper demonstrate that the student has read, understood, and can apply the background materials for the module? If required, has the student demonstrated effective research, as evidenced by the student’s use of relevant and quality sources? Do additional sources used in the paper provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper?
- Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing by inclusion of proper end references and in-text citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all end references been included within the body of the paper as in-text citations?
Tips and Suggestions
Please note the following tips and suggestions:
- Include a cover page and reference page, in addition to the 2-3 pages of analysis described above.
- Include headings for all papers greater than 2 pages (basically all papers), but do not use headings as “space fillers.”
- Cite and reference all sources that you use in your work, including those that you paraphrase but do not quote. This means include citations and quotation marks for direct quotes of more than 5 words, and citations for that information which you have “borrowed” or paraphrased from other sources.
- Journal Articles and Websites: Journal articles can be found in the Trident Online Library. Book chapters are located in the same library, but you must click on “Additional Library Resources” and then search the eBook Academic Collection (EBSCO).Airbnb’s Nathan Blecharczyk on being the only engineer for the first year/ Founder stories. (2013). YouTube Video.
- Caldwell, R. (2012). Leadership and learning: A critical reexamination of Senge’s learning organization. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 25(1), 39-55.Cardenas, J., & Crabtree, G. (2009). Making time for visionary leadership. College and University, 84(3), 59-63. Cultural competence. (2013). Global Pathways.
- G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. (2016). Mind Tools.
- Optional Readings and References
Appelbaum, S., Bartolomucci, N., Beaumier, E., Boulanger, J. & et al. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of culture, leadership and trust. Management Decision, 42(1/2), 13-43.Blain, J. (2006) Visionary Leadership.
- YouTube Video: A cross cultural comparison of the importance of leadership traits for effective low-level and high-level leaders: Australia and China. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 7(1), 47-61.Conceicao, S. C., & Altman, B. A. (2011). Training and development process and organizational culture change. Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 33-44.Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing culture: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-26.
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