Review the case study (provided below) to determine the identified issue, evidence-based intervention, and single-subject design. You will use this to develop a research plan for a single-subject design study on your client.
Submit a 4- to 5-page proposal/research plan for single-subject evaluation for your work with your chosen client. Identify the problem you will target, the outcomes you will measure, the evidence-based intervention, and the evaluation design. Include the following sections:
- Literature Review
- Setting and Intervention
- Expected Results
Make sure to include appropriate APA citations and a reference list.
The steps at the heart of single-subject research are part of the everyday practice of social work. Social workers implement interventions daily to meet clients’ needs and monitor results. However, proper single-subject research entails far more than these simple day-to-day practices. Proper single-system research requires a high degree of knowledge and commitment. Social workers must fully understand the purpose and variations of the design. They must develop a hypothesis based on research and select a suitable method for testing it. They must ensure the data’s reliability and validity and know how to analyze and evaluate it properly.
In this Assignment, you devise a plan to evaluate the evidence-based intervention you are applying with your chosen client. In particular, you must prepare to monitor progress using measures that can be assessed in a single-subject research design. You must also draw from the research literature to set the context and need for the study.
Tiffani Bradley is a 16-year-old heterosexual Caucasian female referred to Teens First after being arrested for prostitution. Teens First is a court-mandated teen counseling program for adolescent survivors of sexual exploitation and human trafficking. At Teens First, social workers provide clients with a holistic range of services. Tiffani has been provided room and board in the residential treatment facility and will meet with a social worker to address her multiple needs and concerns. Tiffani has been arrested three times for prostitution in the last two years. Before her most recent charge, a new state policy was enacted to protect youth 16 years and younger from prosecution and jail time for prostitution. The Safe Harbor for Exploited Children Act allows the state to define Tiffani as a sexually exploited youth and, therefore, not imprison her. She was mandated to services at the agency, unlike her prior arrests when she had been sent to detention. Tiffani had been living with a man named Donald since she was 14. She had had limited contact with her family members and had not been attending school. She described Donald as her “husband” (although they were not married) and her only friend. During intake, it was noted that Tiffani had multiple bruises and burn marks on her legs and arms. She reported that Donald had slapped her and burned her with cigarettes when he felt she did not behave. Tiffani has been treated for several sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at local clinics and is currently on an antibiotic for a kidney infection. It appears that over the last 2 years, Tiffani has had neither outside support nor interactions with anyone beyond Donald and some other young women also being trafficked. Childhood and Early Adolescence During social work sessions, Tiffani gave a rather in-depth description of her childhood. At first, Tiffani provided a family history that was filled with only happy memories. She remembered her life up to age 8 as filled with moments of joy. She remembered going to school, playing with her sister, and her mother and father getting along. As the social worker and Tiffani continued to meet, Tiffani shared what she remembered as a gradual but definitive change in the family dynamics around the time when she turned 8 years old. She remembered being awakened by music and laughter in the early hours of the morning. When she went downstairs to investigate, she saw her parents along with her uncle Nate passing a pipe back and forth between them. She remembered asking them what they were doing and her mother saying, “adult things,” and putting her back in bed. Tiffani remembered being woken up by noise several times after that and seeing her father and her uncle passing the pipe between them. Sometimes her mother was there, and sometimes she was not. Often when her mother was not there, Nate would see her and ask her to come over. Her father would ask her to show them the dance that she had learned at school. When Tiffani danced, her father and Nate would laugh and offer her pocket change. Sometimes they were joined by their friend Jimmy. For years, the music and noise downstairs continued, later accompanied by screams and shouting and sounds of people fighting. One morning, Shondra yelled at Robert to “get up and go to work.” Tiffani and Diana saw Robert come out of the bedroom and slap Shondra so hard she was knocked down. Robert then went back into the bedroom. Tiffani also noticed significant changes in her home’s appearance. The home, which was never fancy, was almost always neat and tidy. Tiffani noticed that dust would gather around the house, dishes would pile up in the sink, dirt would remain on the floor, and clothes would go for long periods of time without being washed. Tiffani remembered cleaning her own clothes and making meals for herself and her sister during this period. Sometimes Tiffani and her sister would come downstairs in the morning to find empty beer cans and liquor bottles on the kitchen table along with the pipe. Her parents would be in the bedroom, and Tiffani and her sister would leave the house and go to school by themselves. Tiffani was unclear if her parents were working or how the bills were paid. Often there was not enough food to feed everyone, and she would go to bed hungry. During one session, Tiffani described an incident of sexual abuse. One night she was awoken by her uncle Nate and his friend Jimmy in her room. Her parents were apparently out, and they were the only adults in the home. They asked her if she wanted to come downstairs and show them the new dances she learned at school. Once downstairs, Nate and Jimmy put some music on and started to dance. They asked Tiffani to start dancing with them, which she did. While they were dancing, Jimmy spilled some beer on her. Nate said she had to go to the bathroom to clean up. Nate, Jimmy, and Tiffani all went to the bathroom. Nate asked Tiffani to take her clothes off so she could get in the bath. Tiffani hesitated to do this, but Nate insisted it was okay since he and Jimmy were family. Tiffani eventually relented and began to wash up. Nate would tell her that she missed a spot and would scrub the area with his hands. After this incident, others occurred, with increasing levels of molestation each time. Tiffani felt very bad about this but had difficulty explaining why, even to herself. She was very afraid of everyone in her family except her sister, Diana. She was also afraid that Diana might be subjected to the same thing. The last time it happened, when Tiffani was 14, she pretended to be willing to dance for them, but when she got downstairs, she ran out the front door of the house. Tiffani ran down the block, intending to go to her school because it was one of the few places she felt safe. She said she was barefoot and in her pajamas, and it was very cold. About halfway to her school, a car stopped, and a man inside asked her where she was going. When Tiffani replied that she was going to school, the man said that it was the middle the night. Tiffani did not want to tell him the whole story, so she told him that there was trouble at home and she just wanted to go to school early. Donald The man introduced himself as Donald and asked her why she did not go to her boyfriend’s house. When Tiffani said she did not have a boyfriend, Donald replied that if she had a boyfriend, she would have somebody to take care of her and keep her safe when these things happened. He then offered to be her boyfriend. Tiffani did not say anything, but when Donald said he’d give her a ride, she agreed and got in the car. Donald took Tiffani to his apartment, explaining that the school would be closed for hours. When they got to his apartment, Donald fed Tiffani and gave her beer, explaining that it would help keep her warm. Tiffani did not like the taste of the beer, but at Donald’s insistence, she drank it. When Tiffani was drunk, Donald began kissing her, and they had sex. Tiffani knew about sex from school and some of her girlfriends, but she had never had it with anyone before. She was grateful to Donald because he had helped her get away from Nate and Jimmy. Donald had also told her that he loved her and they would be together forever. Tiffani was afraid that if she did not have sex, Donald would not let her stay—and she had nowhere else to go. For the next 3 days, Donald brought her food and beer and had sex with her several more times. Donald told Tiffani that she was not allowed to do anything without his permission. This included watching TV, going to the bathroom, taking a shower, and eating and drinking. Donald bought Tiffani a dress, explaining to her that she was going to “find a date” and get men to pay her to have sex with her. When Tiffani said she did not want to do that, Donald hit her several times. Donald explained that if she didn’t do it, he would get her sister, Diana, and make her do it instead. Out of fear for her sister, Tiffani relented and did what Donald told her to do. Tiffani and the social worker talked often about her continued desire to be reunited with Donald. They discussed what Donald represented for Tiffani and why he was such an important part of her life. She often described him as the person who “saved” her and felt she owed much to him. She vividly remembered the fear she felt the nights Nate and Jimmy touched her, and she was convinced they would have raped her that last night if she hadn’t left.
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