Principles of Management Assignments 1 and 2

Assignment 1: Business email


When World War II started, Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent the following memo to the British Admiralty: “Please tell on a single side of a sheet of paper the state of readiness of the British Navy to win a war today.”  As you can realize, a well-crafted memo summarizing all essential information on a given topic is a most effective tool that can lead to clear understanding and effective decision-making.


  1. Write a business memo (use Times New Roman 12 pt. size font.  Fit your thoughts in one standard letter-size page.  Be clear, concise and logical.  Avoid misspelling words, company names and trademarks.
  2. Provide the required essential information about a well-kown company.  Identify the major decisions, milestones, innovations and/or policies that explain its growth over time.  
  3. Use your own phrases and sentences – don’t just copy my example and simply change the facts because that would be plagiarism, which is punishable with an F.


The format is shown on page 2, and an example is provided on page 3. The Email must include:

  1. Company Overview:  You will begin by explaining why you selected this particular company, then include all the required information.  Note that the key part of the assignment consists of identifying the main reasons that explain its growth.
  2. Close by focusing on your next assignment:  At the conclusion of the memo you will identify the specific topic you will research in your next assignment.
Please note that you will work on the same organization in the next assignment.  Amazon will NOT be accepted as an assignment topic.

Email Format

Email Address:

Using your Lehman email address, please send me your one-page memo to: (n/A)


*Course* Section A01 – Business Email – Spring 2023: Your Full Name


Dear Professor M:

First Paragraph (about 2 sentences): Introduce yourself and explain the purpose of this email.

Second Paragraph (about 6-10 sentences):  Identify the well-known company you have chosen and the reason(s) for your selection.  Then provide an overview that includes: (a) year founded; (b) beginnings; (c) founder’s vision and values, significant innovations, milestones and/or policies that really explain in a fundamental way its growth over time; (d) current success or problems.

Third Paragraph (about 3-4 sentences): Identify its (e) headquarters location; (f) list its main products or services; (g) provide its industry classification and NAICS or SIC Code; (h) indicate its current size or industry ranking; (i) list its main competitors(s).  (Conduct an internet search of your own).

Fourth Paragraph (about 2-3 sentences):  Sharply identify the focus of your next assignment –that is,  clearly define a current issue related to this company that you will investigate next, such as for example, ways to improve Amazon Prime… don’t just say you will research Amazon Prime.

Conclusion (about 1-2 sentences): Thank the instructor for his time and provide a reply address for future correspondence.

  • For example: Thank you in advance for your time in reviewing my work. I look forward to engaging with you in this project and your valuable feedback. (Note: use your own words, not mine – don’t plagiarize!)







School of Business


Dear Prof,

My name is xxx xxxxxx and as per your assignment instructions, the purpose of this one-page memo to is to provide an overview of the topic I have chosen,, Inc.  I am interested in learning how Amazon has become one of the leading companies in the world.

Amazon was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos as an online bookseller, and within three months it had reached weekly revenues of $20,000. Bezos kept improving its website and creating new features that now seem ordinary, like one-click shopping, customer ratings and reviews, e-mail order verification & tracking, etc. In 1998 the company began to sell music and movie cassettes, and shortly thereafter expanded into toys and electronics. By 2005 Amazon launched Amazon Prime, a revolutionary two-day shipping service. Now, guided by its vision to “be earth’s most customer-centric company; the place where people can come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online,” Amazon has become a total retailer that controls its entire logistics chain, including its fleet of cargo planes, trailer trucks, delivery vans and warehouses, and has recently entered the trillion-dollar ocean shipping business.  

Amazon has its headquarters at 410 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109. The company operates more than 75 fulfillment centers and 25 sorting centers across North America; it is the #1 retailer in the world in term of sales (surpassing even Walmart), and employs 125,000 full-time associates. Its main product categories by dollar sales are electronics, apparel, footwear, home and kitchen goods, beauty and personal care, smart phones and accessories. 

Amazon’s primary industry is online retail and electronic shopping, and its primary NAICS Code is 454113: Mail-Order Houses. Its top competitors are Walmart, Sam’s, Costco, eBay, Kroger, Microsoft, Apple, Home Depot and Target.

The specific area of interest I will focus on in the next assignment is on improving Amazon Prime, a cutting-edge service currently priced at $139 a year that includes benefits like free two-day shipping, prime video and music, prime rewards, Whole Foods discounts, prime reading, etc.

I believe that researching how to improve Amazon Prime can broaden my knowledge and provide an understanding of what it takes to be successful in the fast-changing business world.  

Thank you for your time in reviewing my work. I look forward to both engaging in this project and your valuable feedback!


Principles of Management

Assignment 2: Business Report Executive Summary


You will write a Business Report Executive Summary to answer a specific and clearly focused research question on a topic that you already identified in Assignment 1.  The Report must include conclusions and recommendations as well as a list of the references you have consulted.


The Business Report Executive Summary must be one page, single spaced, in standard letter size, Times New Roman 12 pt. font.  It must make the reader understand its purpose clearly and quickly as well as provide conclusions and recommendations, rather than a simple summary of findings.  Plus, its recommendations must be based on the sources consulted.

The Executive Summary includes these sections:

  1. Purpose – identifies your clearly focused research question (see appendix A).
    1. Method – lists the key words that you used in your internet search (see Appendix B) to answer the research question.
    1. Conclusions – summarize what you learned from at least six (6) sources: business magazines, business newspapers, journals, databases, etc., all referenced in APA style (see Appendix C).
    1. Recommendations – list four (4) specific, source-based, action-oriented suggestions that answer the research question.

An example of the Business Report Executive Summary is provided in pages 2 and 3.  Note: use your own words, not mine – don’t plagiarize!

Please note that you have towork with the same organization utilized in Assignment 1.  Amazon cannot be accepted as a student research topic.



This Executive Summary will answer the following specific and clearly focused research question: “What new strategies can help Amazon Prime maintain its dominance over Walmart?”  Its underlying premise is that in a constantly evolving marketplace, only highly innovative approaches will ensure that an Amazon Prime membership remains the preferred option over Walmart’s membership.


Since Amazon Prime has to provide exceptional member benefits as well as outstanding customer service, the key search words I have used to obtain information on these topics were: “what is Amazon Prime”; “new member benefits at Amazon Prime”; “package delivery at Amazon Prime”; “pricing at Amazon Prime”; and “wage levels and employee satisfaction at Amazon, Inc.”


Based on six reliable business sources (see next page) I have concluded that customers increasingly want same-day shipping that fits their more efficient lifestyle.  This arises from the fact that after the COVID-19 pandemic people have become more used to the convenience of ordering food, gifts or groceries from local businesses, as well as having their orders delivered at home. Also, customers want greater benefits, higher levels of satisfaction and lower prices as they become exposed to more efficient networks and transportation systems, and greater economies of scale. 

The only way that Amazon can outperform competitors, both in so-called “last mile” delivery and in providing lowest prices and unique benefits, is by using breakthrough technologies and adopting highly creative, breakthrough approaches.


1. Expedite the conversion of vacant malls into Amazon warehouses across major metropolitan areas in the US, and eventually couple this with the use of autonomous driverless vehicles for faster “last mile” local deliveries (this is an option that should unfold progressively in the future).

2. Offer free delivery on a larger number of orders, reflecting the company’s economies of scale.

3.Expand the benefits of a Prime membership with universal money-back guarantee on every purchase (it currently applies to credit card purchases only).

4. Employee burnout at warehouses and distribution centers will remain an unsolved problem – the reason is that increased automation has produced only marginal results in alleviating work stress, and the transformative impact of 3-D printing on manufacturing, shipping and handling is still decades away. Therefore this issue will likely remain Amazon’s greatest corporate weakness for the foreseeable future, and the company can only expect to make incremental gains over time. 

Student xxx xxxxxx



The six sources I have used to conduct this in-depth research are: Big Think web expert portal, Forbes Magazine, Consumer Reports, Business Insider, Investopedia and   Specific citations are listed below:

Danziger, P.N. (2021, January 10).  Amazon’s Customer Loyalty is Astounding. Retrieved from

Consumer Reports (2022, March 1).  Pros and Cons of Amazon Prime. Retrieved from

Kate, T. (2019, October, 2).  Amazon Just Intensified the War Against Walmart. Retrieved from

Shobhit, S. (2019, September 24).  Top 5 Alternatives to Amazon Prime. Retrieved from

Timmermann, M. (2019, July 3). Amazon Prime vs. Walmart comparison. Retrieved from

Mourdoukoutas, P.  (2020, May 25).  Amazon Turns Shopping Malls IntoWarehouses, Changing America’s Community Landscape.  Retrieved from



FocusA good research question must have laser-like focus and precision.  This will impact the rest of your assignment leading to meaningful research, clear findings and conclusions and substantial recommendations.

CreativityIn order to find the topic for a good research question you must be creative. The hallmark of creativity is thinking outside the box.  It consists of looking at a company, product or service from different perspectives until you discover an interesting and useful issue worth investigating.

We are all creativeVery true – creativity flourishes when we repeatedly think about a topic, yet lies dormant when we don’t.  Have you noticed how repeated attempts at finding a solution makes you more creative?  The reason is that insistent thinking forces you look at events/ideas/ circumstances with fresh eyes, overcoming your mental blocks and limitations.

How to Develop A Good Research Question:

  1. Google some business periodicals to find headlines associated with the company you worked in Assignment 1 and the general topic you identified then.
  2. Write a list of the headlines that attract your attention;
  3. Repeatedly think about them from different angles (see issues in a new way);
  4. Write down some tentative research questions;
  5. Discard those that do not appear interesting, focused or researchable.
  6. Among the remaining ones, select the question that will allow you to do the most interesting research project;
  7. Refine your research question until it is concise, clear and focused.

Formulating a good research question will help you complete Assignment 2 in a meaningful and interesting way.

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