Plant and Animal Processes

You should already understand:

  • Angiosperm organs (structures) and the functions of these organs.
  • Structure and function of major vertebrate organ systems.
  • Homeostasis in humans.
  • Gametogenesis and fertilization in angiosperms versus vertebrates.
  • Mammalian blood circulation versus frog blood circulation.
  • Alternation of generations.
  • Angiosperm tropisms and apical dominance.
  • Segregation of alleles, independent assortment, sex linkage, and polygenic inheritance.

Answer the following 8 questions:

  1. You are given a potted plant as a housewarming gift, but the plant does not include any information about the best way to care for it. Does it require full sunlight or partial shade? Does it require lots of water, or will too much water actually be damaging to this species? Assume that you can’t simply look the plant up on the Internet or ask an expert. Based on the structure of the roots, stems, and leaves, you can determine the best conditions for this plant to thrive. Explain the characteristics of these 3 structures that will help you make this determination and how their function relates to these characteristics.
  2. In order to remain healthy, humans must be able to keep their bodies in a stable condition even when the outside environment is very different. Sometimes hormones are used to accomplish this but sometimes they are not. Compare and contrast two such stabilizing mechanisms in humans that are under hormonal control and two that are not.
  3. A mouse wakes up from sleeping all day and feels hungry. The mouse leaves its burrow to locate some food, which it begins to eat. While the mouse is eating, it hears a fox sniffing closer and closer to its location. The mouse runs as fast as it can back to its burrow. The mouse’s burrow is in a thorn thicket. The fox begins to quickly dig at the entrance of the mouse burrow and, in the process, some of the thorns go through his fur and prick his skin. While he is trying to decide whether to continue digging the mouse out or look for something easier, he hears another fox approach. He decides to leave the area after first marking a bush with his urine. List the major organ systems that made these animal actions possible and how each major organ system contributed to the action.

Explain what is different about gamete formation and fertilization in angiosperms (compared to vertebrates) that results in the fruit containing triploid endosperm (see diagram below) when triploid tissues are not found in vertebrates.

  1. Compare and contrast a mammal’s blood circulation and a frog’s blood circulation that results in only deoxygenated blood in the pulmonary arteries of a mammal but partially oxygenated blood in the pulmonary arteries of a frog. What purpose is served by the pulmonary arteries mammals have versus those of amphibians?
  2. The alternation of generations does not occur in animals but does occur in plants. For this question, however, assume that the alternation of generations does occur in a special animal called an orc. The orc looks somewhat like a human but reproduces like a plant, using the alternation of generations approach. There are female orcs and male orcs. Describe and explain the different phases of its lifecycle, using the appropriate terminology of a typical angiosperm lifecycle and making note of the chromosome number for each part of the cycle.
  3. Parts A & B:

Look at the following pictures of growing plants and explain what kind of growth is represented and what stimulus caused that kind of growth.

The American Elm tree in the picture on the left has a rounded appearance while the Douglas Fir in the picture on the right has a more pointed structure. Explain why these 2 trees are so different in shape.

  1. Parts A, B, C, & D:
    The trank is a hypothetical diploid animal having 22 chromosomes in each of its somatic cells. Just like in humans, the female is the homogametic sex—all of her somatic cells contain 2 sex chromosomes that are identical (XX). The male somatic cells contain an X and a Y sex chromosome.

    The following traits have been described in this animal:

    1. Presence of toe hairs (T gene: T = toe hairs present, t = naked toes)
    1. Eye color (E gene: E = deposition of color, e = no deposition of color; R gene: R = red, r = pink)
    1. Hair curliness on knuckles (C gene: C = very curly, c = straight)
    1. Freckles (F gene: = freckles present, f = no freckles)

In parentheses, after each of the traits listed above, you can see which genes have been linked to that trait and the alleles for each of those genes. Based on this information, please answer the following questions:

  1. Two hairy-toed tranks are crossed. Three-fourths of the progeny are hairy toed; one-fourth of the progeny have naked toes. In a separate cross, a hairy toed trank is crossed with a naked toed trank, resulting in half of the progeny being hairy toed and half having naked toes. According to these crosses, which allele is the dominant one? Explain your answer.
  2. A trank with freckles is crossed with a trank having no freckles. All of the resulting female trank progeny have freckles while all of the male trank progeny have no freckles. Write out the genotypes of the two parents and explain how these progeny ratios are possible.
  3. A cross was made between a trank homozygous for very curly hair on her knuckles and a male trank homozygous for straight hair on his knuckles. All of the progeny had hairy knuckles but, in every case, the hair curliness was not very curly and was not straight either. The scientist recording the progeny phenotypes reported that the hair curliness was kind of in between that of both parents. What is the simplest explanation for the phenotype of the progeny?
  4. The following cross was made: RrEe x rrEe. What are the possible genotypes of the progeny? What are the possible phenotypes of the progeny and the ratios of those phenotypes?

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