To what extent can the observed association between the exposure and outcome be attributed to non-causal explanations? Consider the following questions in your critique:
-Are the results likely to be affected by selection and/or measurement bias?
-Are the results likely to be affected by confounding?
-Are the results likely to be affected by chance variation?
Do the findings accord with other evidence? Specifically:
-Are the findings consistent with other evidence, particularly evidence from studies of similar or more powerful study design?
-Are the results plausible in terms of a biological mechanism?
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