Part 1: Blood typing and transfusions
Antigens (A, B, or Rh) are molecules present on the surfaces of red blood cells. Antibodies (anti-A, anti-B, anti-D (Rh)) are proteins present in the plasma of the blood. If an antigen comes into contact with its corresponding antibody, they attach to each other, causing clumping called agglutination.
A person with Type A blood has A antigens and only anti-B antibodies.
A person with Type B blood has B antigens and only anti-A antibodies.
A person with Type AB blood has both A and B antigens and neither antibodies.
A person with Type O blood has neither antigens and both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
Click on the following link, view the five-minute animation, and then answer the questions below. It is a good idea to review the questions before you view the animation to become familiar with the answers to look for as you watch.
1. Give two reasons why blood typing is important.
2. Name the most common blood typing system.
3. Name the four major blood types.
4. What do “A” and “B” refer to?
5. Name the three anti-sera used in blood typing.
6. Name the piece of lab equipment used in this blood typing animation where blood type is determined.
7. What does “C” stand for in the labelling system?
8. What does it mean if agglutination (clumping) occurs in the following wells?
a. well A
b. well B
c. well D
9. Describe the appearance of the wells for the following blood types:
a. Type A+
b. Type A-
c. Type B+
d. Type B-
e. Type AB+
f. Type AB-
g. Type O+
h. Type O-
Click on the following link, view the nine-minute animation, and then answer the questions below. It is a good idea to review the questions before you view the animation to become familiar with the answers to look for as you watch.
10. Which bloods types can be used as donor blood in transfusions into people with the following blood types:
a. Type A
b. Type B
c. Type AB
d. Type O
11. Which blood type is called the “universal donor”? Explain why.
12. Which blood type is called the “universal recipient”? Explain why.
Click on the following link, read the information, and then answer the questions below. It is a good idea to review the questions before you view the animation to become familiar with the answers to look for as you watch.
13. Explain when Rh factor becomes risky for a pregnant mother.
14. Is this risk associated with the first pregnancy or only subsequent pregnancies? Explain.
15. Describe the medical procedure used to avoid risks to future pregnancies?
16. Give the Rh blood types of a mother and father which indicate that precautions might need to be taken by their doctor.
Part 2: Heart Health and Disease Risk
Use the following websites to help answer these questions:
6. Discuss your risk for each of the diseases and the preventive measures that you would need to reduce your risk.
a. Heart Disease
c. Chronic bronchitis/Emphysema
Optional: Other disease risk/prevention
7. What values did you get with the Karvonen Formula for:
a. maximum heart rate ___________________
b. target heart rate ________________________
c. heart rate reserve ________________________
d. Discuss the comparison results.
(Note: Save this answer sheet as a Rich text file (.rtf), add your answers to the questions, save, and submit it in the designated area.)
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