Human Development

  1.  What does the term “epigenetic” mean and why is this term important for understanding development?
  2.  Define the term gene-environment interaction. What is gene expression? How does it relate to nature vs. nurture debate?
  3.  What is the difference between cross-sectional design and longitudinal design? What are disadvantages of these designs? What are cohort effects?
  4.  What do we mean when we say that developmental influences are bidirectional?
  5.  What are teratogens and how do they impact development?
  6. TED Talk: When does learning begin?
  8. TED Talk: Poverty and brain development
  10.  What adaptations help newborn infants to survive?
  11.  What are the sucking and rooting reflexes?
  12. TED Talk: The linguistic genius of babies
  14. TED Talk: What do babies think?
  16.  According to the Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, children actively construct their understanding of the world. Describe the processes of adaptation, assimilation, and accommodation that underlie cognitive development
  17. Adaptation
  18. Assimilation
  19. Accommodation
  20.  Piaget identified 4 stages of development. Provide age range and a description for each of them. What characteristic errors are made at each stage?
  21. For example, at the Sensorimotor Stage children lack something called object permanence. Describe the phenomenon.
  22. What is Piaget’s Three Mountain Task and what was it designed to demonstrate?
  23. Who was Lev Vygotsky and how does his theory compare to Piaget’s theory? What did Vygotsky emphasize?
  24.  Provide a definition of scaffolding, and describe how scaffolding applies to language development and to education?
  25. TED Talk: Birth of a word
  27.  What is the zone of proximal development? How does this term apply to education?
  28.  What does it mean when we say that child has a theory of mind? When does it emerge? How do you measure theory of mind in the child?
  29. TED Talk: Reading others’ minds
  31.  TED Talk: When do children start to lie?
  33.  What is attachment? How does attachment differ from imprinting?
  34. Imprinting video: 
  35. What did Harry Harlow find out in his studies of attachment? What methods did he use? Why were his findings important?
  36. Harlow video: 
  37.  Mary Ainsworth developed a procedure for observing and assessing the quality of attachment in relationships between a caregiver and child. What qualities of attachment did she observe? Describe each of them.
  38. Strange situation video: #!
  39. What is the usual setup for the Strange Situation test? What is the dependent measure?
  40.  Erik Erikson (1902-1994) developed the most comprehensive theory of how identity (sense of who we are, life goals and priorities) develops. What happens during the stage at which individuals experience a conflict between Identity and Role Confusion? When does this typically occur?
  41. TED Talk: Adolescent brain development
  43.  What is emerging adulthood?
  44. TED Talk: Sexuality and family planning
  46.  Lawrence Kohlberg studied how morality changes over lifespan and concluded that morality develops in three main stages. What are they?
  47. Describe the research methods Kohlberg used to develop his theory of moral reasoning.// This is a study guide that I must complete as a homework. There are just simple questions.

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