Evidence Synthesis

A Evidence Synthesis product responds to requests from policymakers and stakeholders by summarizing the research evidence drawn from systematic reviews and from primary research studies and provides them access to optimally packaged, relevant and best available research evidence.
The preparation of this Evidence Synthesis involved the following steps:

  1. Formulating a clear review question on a high priority topic requested by policymakers and stakeholders
  2. Establishing what is to be done, and in what timeline
  3. Identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the relevant research evidence about the question
  4. Drafting the Evidence Synthesis in such a way that the research evidence is presented concisely and in accessible language
  5. Submitting the Evidence Synthesis for Peer/Merit Reviews
  6. Finalizing the Evidence Synthesis based on the input of the peer/merit reviewers
  7. Final submission, validation, and dissemination of the Evidence Synthesis

Evidence search and studies selection
We conducted a literature search in PubMed database. We searched systematic as well as non- systematic review papers.
PubMed search strategy included the following search terms: bundled payment OR episode-based payment OR episode payment OR episode-of-care payment OR evidence-based case rate OR package pricing OR Bundled charges OR Bundled reimbursement OR episode-based reimbursement OR episode- of-care payment. The search was run n titles/abstracts of the papers.
Search was limited to English language papers and last 5 years of publication period (2015-2020).
In total search resulted in 62 references. Two authors reviewed all titles and abstracts generated by the search. Following the screening and full-text assessment, 18 publications were identified and included in the Evidence Synthesis.
A calibration exercise was conducted to ensure the reliability of data extraction. About 15% of studies were extracted jointly by the two researchers. When researchers achieved good agreement on more than 90% of the studies to be included, the two researchers continued data extraction independently. Data was extracted according to the predetermined data extraction form. Among the other information, we extracted a summary of results and, in some instances, primary study level findings for a better understanding of the results.
We did not determine the methodological quality of the studies.

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