Ethics and Information Technology

Title: Bibliographical details of the text you are reviewing
I will need 80+ for this piece so please follow the guidance and the marking criteria.
Overall there needs to be 5 references, including the main text.
The main text to analyze: Nissenbaum, Helen. 2005. “Where computer security meets national security.” Ethics and information technology 7 (2):61-73
(PDF version attached below)

Assessment guide:
Write a 1000 word review essay.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Review essays are not the same as a review. They will bring in other resources, for example to support a weakness identified or to place a piece in relation to a wider debate and they will usually focus on what the text under review contributes to a particular political or academic debate.

IMPORTANT! You need to draw on at least FOUR additional resources FROM THE READING LISTS PROVIDED.
Use the additional sources substantively and not just as a gesture. For example, use them
• to highlight the contribution the main text makes to our understanding of security;
• to elaborate a central point you picked up in the text you are reviewing by contrasting or comparing the authors’ analysis with another source;
• to support your evaluation by showing what the author is missing or by reinforcing the importance of the text under review for our understanding of contemporary security politics;
• to use an additional illustration that applies similar insights to another situation or site
• …

Template for the review essay:
Title: Bibliographical details of the text you are reviewing
Part 1. Summary of the content (500 words)
Use the following questions as guidance for this section: (All these questions do not have to be answered in the essay, they are a guidance to help you get started, but try to answer 1-2 of them please.)
• What is the security problem – or problems – in world politics that the text address?
• What is its main contribution to our understanding of the politics of security?

• What are some of the key challenges for security policies that the text highlights?

• Which security policies and practices do the author(s) criticize and how?

• What alternative response(s) to the problem do the author(s) propose, if any?

Part 2. Evaluation (500 words)

Use the following questions as guidance for this section:
• What are the main strengths and shortcomings of the analysis of security?
(For example, do you agree with how the author(s) define and analyze security? Do you see any problems with the solutions or policies that the author(s) propose? Do the author(s) ignore important factors or issues?)
• What is the contribution the author(s) make to our understanding of the contemporary international politics of security? Or, put slightly differently: do you recommend the text to readers interested in contemporary security issues or not and why?

The essay will be graded in terms of how well it does the above in light of the School’s grading criteria which I will attach as a document separately:
• How well you address the task
• The quality of the extra resources you have researched
• The level of knowledge and understanding of the text under review and its relevance for understanding the international politics of security
• The level of coherence and sophistication of the argument and structure in both the summary and the evaluation
• The quality of the overall presentation
• The adequacy of your referencing
Additional readings to use (please choose the one that will match the best with the chosen text):
Wolfers, Arnold. 1952. “National security as an ambiguous symbol.” Political Science Quarterly 67 (4):481-502. [Reprinted in: Wolfers, Arnold 1962. Discord and Collaboration. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Chapter 10, pp. 147-165.]
Paul Mason (2022) ‘The invasion of Ukraine altered warfare and geopolitics for ever.’ The New Statesman. 24 August 2022. []
Baldwin, David. 1997. “The concept of security.” Review of International Studies 23 (1):5-26
Booth, Ken, and Nicholas J. Wheeler. 2018. “Uncertainty.” In Security studies. An introduction., edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 131-146. Abingdon: Routledge.
Buzan, Barry 1991. People, States & Fear. An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. 2nd edition ed. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf — Chapter 3 National insecurity: threats and vulnerabilities
Gros, Frédéric. 2019 [2013]. The security principle. From serenity to regulation. Translated by David Broder. London: Verso: chapter 3.
Herz, John 1950. “Idealist internationalism and the security dilemma.” World Politics 2 (2):157-80
Peoples, Columba, and Nick Vaughan-Williams. 2015. Critical security studies. An introduction. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge: 16-20
Jones, Sam. 2016. “European wargames.” Financial Times, 13 June 2016
Siers, Rhea. 2018. “Cybersecurity.” In Security studies. An introduction, edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 556-568. Abingdon: Routledge [read pp. 564-565: section with title ‘Estonia 2007’]
Dunn Cavelty, Myriam. 2007. Critical information infrastructure: vulnerabilities, threats and responses. Paper for Disarmament Forum. [See pdf file uploaded below]
Traynor, Ian. 2007. “Russia accused of unleashing cyberwar to disable Estonia.” The Guardian. 17 May 2007. Article available online here:
Dodds, Klaus. 2007. Geopolitics: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press: chapters 1 & 2.
For a more advanced introduction to geopolitics:
Agnew, John A. 2003. Geopolitics: re-visioning world politics. London: Routledge. [Introduction, Chapter 1 ‘Visualizing global space’, and Chapter 6 ‘The three ages of geopolitics’]
For a more advanced introduction to cyber security:
Nissenbaum, Helen. 2005. “Where computer security meets national security.” Ethics and information technology 7 (2):61-73.
Further readings on geopolitics:
Agnew, John, Jeffrey T. Checkel, Daniel Deudney, Jennifer Mitzen, and Stefano Guzzini. 2017. “Symposium on Stefano Guzzini’s (Ed.) ‘the Return of Geopolitics in Europe? Social Mechanisms and Foreign Policy Identity Crisis’.” Cooperation and Conflict 52 (3).
Auer, Stefan. 2015. “Carl Schmitt in the Kremlin: the Ukraine crisis and the return of geopolitics.” International Affairs 91 (5):953-68
Dittmer, Jason, and Jo Sharp, eds. 2014. Geopolitics: an introductory reader. Abingdon: Routledge.
Klare, Michael T. 2016. “Sleepwalking into a big war.” Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2016
Guzzini, Stefano. 2012. The Return of Geopolitics in Europe? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [In particular chapters 1-3]
Klinke, Ian. 2018. “Geopolitics and the political right: lessons from Germany.” International Affairs 94 (3):495-514.
Massaro, Vanessa A., and Jill Williams. 2013. “Feminist Geopolitics.” Geography Compass 7 (8):567-77
Starr, Harvey. 2013. “On Geopolitics: Spaces and Places.” International Studies Quarterly 57 (3):433-9
Dunn Cavelty, Myriam. 2010. “Cyber-threats.” In The Routledge handbook of security studies, edited by Myriam Dunn Cavelty and Victor Mauer, 180-189. Abingdon: Routledge
Dunn Cavelty, Myriam. 2013. “From Cyber-Bombs to Political Fallout: Threat Representations with an Impact in the Cyber-Security Discourse.” International Studies Review 15 (1):105-122.
Siers, Rhea. 2018. “Cybersecurity.” In Security studies. An introduction, edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 556-568. Abingdon: Routledge.
Ochs, Juliana. (2011) Security and Suspicion. An Ethnography of Everyday Life in Israel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press [in particular: Chapter 4: Embodying suspicion & Epilogue: real fantasies of security]
Carter Hallward, Maia 2008. “Negotiating boundaries, narrating checkpoints: The case of machsom watch. Middle East Critique.” 17(1): 21-40
Cohn, Carol. 1987. “Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals.” Signs 12(4): 687-718.
Enloe, Cynthia. 2016. Globalization and militarism: feminists make the link. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield. [E-copy on order but not yet in library on 18 September 2020]
Enloe, Cynthia. 2010. Nimo’s War, Emma’s War. Making Feminist Sense of the Iraq War. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Huysmans, Jef. 2014. Security Unbound. Enacting Democratic Limits, Critical Issues in Global Politics. Abingdon: Routledge: pp. 59-67.
Jackson, Richard, and Gareth Hall. 2016. “Talking about terrorism: a study of vernacular discourse.” Politics 36 (3):292-307.
Isin, Engin. 2004. “The Neurotic Citizen.” Citizenship Studies 8(3): 217-35.
Naaman, Dorit. 2006. “The silenced outcry: A feminist perspective from the israeli checkpoints in palestine.” NWSA Journal, 18(3): 168-180.
Nyman, Jonna. 2021. “The everyday life of security: capturing space, practice, and affect.” International Political Sociology 15 (3):313-337.
Peoples, Columba and Vaughan-Williams, Nick. 2020. Critical security studies. An introduction. 3rd edition. Abingdon: Routledge: Chapter 13 on (in)security and the everyday. [NOTE: this chapter is only included in the 3rd edition.]
Ragazzi, Francesco. 2016. “Suspect community or suspect category? The impact of counter-terrorism as ‘policed multiculturalism’.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42 (5):724-41.
Tellidis, Ioannis and Glomm Anna. 2019. “Street Art as Everyday Counterterrorism? The Norwegian Art Community’s Reaction to the 22 July 2011 Attacks.” Cooperation and Conflict 54 (2):191-210.
Vaughan-Williams, Nick and Stevens Daniel. 2016. “Vernacular Theories of Everyday (in)Security: The Disruptive Potential of Non-Elite Knowledge.” Security Dialogue 47 (1):40-58.
Guild, Elspeth & Bigo, Didier. 2018 Anti- & counter-terrorism and human rights in Europe. 5 snapshots of current controversies. London: Queen Mary School of Law: Introduction, chapter 1 and chapter 2 (pp. 7-48)
Anwar, Tasniem. 2021. “Time Will Tell: Defining Violence in Terrorism Court Cases.” Security Dialogue. doi: 10.1177/09670106211013716.
Gearson, John (2002), ‘The nature of modern terrorism.’ Political Quarterly. 73:1, pp. 7-24
Jackson, Richard. 2016. Routledge handbook of critical terrorism studies. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, Richard, and Samuel J. Sinclair. 2012. Contemporary debates on terrorism. London: Routledge.
Pillar, Paul R. 2018. “Counterterrorism.” In Security studies. An introduction, edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 408-421. Abingdon: Routledge.
Rogers, Paul. 2018. “Terrorism.” In Security studies. An introduction, edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 395-407. Abingdon: Routledge.
Townshend, Charles. 2002. Terrorism: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Whittaker, David J. 2012. The terrorism reader. 4th ed. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.
Zarakol, Ayse. 2011. ‘What Makes Terrorism Modern? Terrorism, Legitimacy, and the International System’, Review of International Studies 37:5, pp. 2311-2336
Human rights and counter-terrorism:
Amnesty International, Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism —
Bigo, Didier, Sergio Carrera, Elspeth Guild, and R. B. J. Walker. 2008. “The changing landscape of European liberty and security: the mid‐term report of the CHALLENGE project.” International Social Science Journal 59 (192):283-308.
Blakeley, Ruth. 2011. “Dirty Hands, Clean Conscience? The Cia Inspector General’s Investigation of “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques” in the War on Terror and the Torture Debate.” Journal of Human Rights 10: 544-61
Blakeley, Ruth, and Sam Raphael. 2019. “The Prohibition against Torture: Why the Uk Government Is Falling Short and the Risks That Remain.” The Political Quarterly. [First view]
Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe ‘Counter terrorism and human rights protection’ —
Carey, Henry Frank. 2013. “The Domestic Politics of Protecting Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: Poland’s, Lithuania’s, and Romania’s Secret Detention Centers and Other East European Collaboration in Extraordinary Rendition.” East European Politics & Societies and Cultures 27: 429-65.
Black, Crofton, and Edmund Clark. 2015. Negative publicity: artefacts of extraordinary rendition. New York: Aperture Foundation, Inc. [Not available in e-format]
Fabbrini, F. 2014. “The European Court of Human Rights, Extraordinary Renditions and the Right to the Truth: Ensuring Accountability for Gross Human Rights Violations Committed in the Fight against Terrorism.” Human Rights Law Review 14: 85-106.
Guild, Elspeth, Didier Bigo, and Mark Gibney. 2018. Extraordinary Rendition: Addressing the Challenges of Accountability. Abingdon: Routledge.
Huysmans, Jef. 2004. “Minding exceptions. Politics of insecurity and liberal democracy.” Contemporary Political Theory 3 (3):321-41
Saul, Ben. 2013. Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Security argument in defence of extraordinary rendition:
Murray, Mark J. 2011. “Extraordinary Rendition and U.S. Counterterrorism Policy.” Journal of Strategic Security 4:(3):15-28.
Human Security Unit (2014) Strategic Plan 2014-2017. New York, United Nations.
Peoples, Columba and Nick Vaughan-Williams. 2015. Critical Security Studies. An Introduction, 2nd ed., Abingdon: Routledge — Chapter 10 ‘Human security and development’. [Also in: 3rd edition chapter 10]
Burgess, J. Peter & Taylor Owen (eds) 2004. ‘Special section: What is human security?’ Security Dialogue. 35(3), pp. 345-371
Christie, Ryerson. 2010. “Critical voices and human security: to endure, to engage or to critique?” Security Dialogue 41 (2):169-90
Duffield, Mark. 2007. Development, Security and Unending War. Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge: Polity. Chapter 5, pp. 111-132
Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, Ellen Bal, and Oscar Salemink. 2010. A World of Insecurity: Anthropological Perspectives of Human Security. London;Gordonsville;: Pluto Press.
Fierke, Karin. 2015. Critical Approaches to International Security. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity. Chapter 7, Human insecurity.
Hoogensen Gjorv, Gunhild. 2018. “Human security.” In Security studies. An introduction, edited by Paul D. Williams and Matt McDonald, 221-234. Abingdon: Routledge.
Hossain, K, and Petrétei A (ed.). 2016. Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security : Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples. Leiden: Brill.

MacCallion, Gregory (ed.). 2019. National Versus Human Security : Australian and Canadian Military Interventions. Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing.

MacFarlane, S. Neil, Yuen Foong Khong, and Muse Project. 2006. Human security and the UN: a critical history. Bloomington: Indiana University Press — Chapter 7. Human security and the UN: A critique
Kaldor, Mary, Mary Martin, and Sabine Selchow. 2007. “Human security: a new strategic narrative for Europe.” International Affairs 83 (2):273-88
Marhia, Natasha. 2013. “Some humans are more human than others: troubling the ‘human’ in human security from a critical feminist perspective.” Security Dialogue 44 (1):19-35.
Mgbeoji, Ikechi. 2006. “The Civilized Self and the Barbaric Other: Imperial Delusions of Order and the Challenges of Human Security.” Third World Quarterly 27 (5): 855-69.
Paris, Roland. 2001. “Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?” International Security 26 (2):87-102
Thomas, Caroline. 2001. “Global governance, development and human security: exploring the links.” Third World Quarterly 22 (2):159-75

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