# Data and Facts

1. Refer to the data on the corn kernel color frequency from Part I of the lab. (Remember there were four possible types for this part of the lab.)
1. What was the phenotypic frequency from Step 1? (1 point)
2. What was the phenotypic frequency from Step 2? (1 point)
3. What was the phenotypic frequency from Step 3? (1 point)
2. Recall from the background information that purple kernels are dominant and yellow kernels are recessive. The second ear of corn was the result of crossing two heterozygous ears of corn male purple (Pp x Pp). This is represented by the Punnett square below. Complete the Punnett square by writing the correct letters that correspond to each number indicated in the table. (2 points)
 P p P 1 2 p 3 4
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
1. Once the Punnett square for Question 2 is complete, calculate the ratio of purple and yellow kernels (recall that if the dominant trait is present, it will be expressed).
1. What is the ratio of purple to yellow kernels based on the Punnett square? (4 points)
2. How did this compare to the ratio obtained from counting the corn kernels for ear number two in Part I of the lab? (4 points)
2. Recall from the background information that purple kernels are dominant and yellow kernels are recessive. Also recall that smooth kernels are dominant and wrinkled kernels are recessive. The third corn ear was the result of crossing a male ear of corn with the following gametes, PpSs, with a female ear of corn with the same gametes, PpSs. This is represented by the Punnett square below. Complete the Punnett square by writing the correct letters that correspond to each number indicated in the table (for example, PPSS or ppss). (8 points)
 PS Ps pS ps PS 1 2 3 4 Ps 5 6 7 8 pS 9 10 11 12 ps 13 14 15 16
1. Once the Punnett square for Question 4 is complete, calculate the ratio of corn kernel varieties (recall that if the dominant trait is present, it will be expressed).
1. What is the ratio of all kernel varieties based on the Punnett square? (4 points)
2. How does this compare to the ratio obtained from counting the corn kernels? (4 points)
2. Refer to the data from Part II of the lab. List whether the student was positive or negative for each characteristic and include whether the characteristic is dominant or recessive. (6 points)
1. Blood type
2. Widow’s peak
3. Free ear lobes
4. Tongue rolling
5. Hitchhiker’s thumb
6. Left thumb dominance
7. Little finger bend
8. PTC taster
9. Mid-digit hair
10. Facial dimples
11. Freckles
12. Cleft chin
3. Can the student tell from the blood type if the student is heterozygous or homozygous? Explain. (5 points)
4. Create a Punnett square to determine the possibility of a couple having a color-blind child if the mother has the recessive trait on one X and the father is color-blind. HINT: Use Xb to indicate an X with the color-blindness trait. How many female offspring will be color-blind? How many male offspring? (5 points)
5. What was the group number of the student’s karyotype? What was the result of the student’s karyotype? (Include the sex and the chromosomal disorder, if applicable. If there was no chromosomal disorder, the student must state that the individual was normal.) (5 points)
6. Give an example of a situation in which it is important to create a karyotype for an individual. Explain. (2 points)
7. Genetically speaking, why is it important not to mate with a close relative? Explain. (2 points)
8. Does a karyotype tell all of a person’s genetic characteristics? Explain. (2 points)
9. Why is a photograph of cells in metaphase utilized when constructing a karyotype? (2 points)
10. What does it mean to be a carrier of a genetic defective characteristic? When might it be important to know if one is a carrier? (2 points)
11. From the hemophilia procedure: (4 points)
1. What were the possible genotypes of the offspring?
2. What is the probability of males having hemophilia?
3. How many females would have hemophilia?
4. How many carriers would there be?
12. Explain why more males tend to suffer from X-linked disorders than females. (4 points)
13. The student has a friend that knows the student is taking biology, and she is confused about her blood type. Her blood type is O, but her dad is A and her mother is B. She asks the student if it is possible for her parents to have a child that is O. Explain the answer to her. (4 points)
14. In a flower garden, the gardener has purple and white pansies. He notices that a new pansy has sprouted. When it finally flowers, the pansy is lavender. Explain how this happened. (4 points)
15. With a botanist friend’s help, the gardener decides to cross the lavender pansy with the white pansy. Will this result in any purple pansies? Explain. (4 points)
16. (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to human genetics be useful to you in your everyday life or to a healthcare professional? (20 points)

Key components of critical thinking and application include the following:

1. Demonstrates application and comprehension of the scientific principles.
2. Displays competence in applying scientific knowledge to your personal or professional life.
3. Relevant content is supported by facts, data, and detailed examples.
4. The application paragraph is organized and structured.

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