Instructions: As we continue to learn together, please respond in a manner consistent with the expectations of the University of South Florida. Write professionally, well-reasoned responses to each question in a Microsoft Word document using Times New Roman (12 pt. font). Please double-space and adhere to APA (6th or 7th ed. is acceptable). For Journal Entries, the use of first person for Question #4 is allowed.
Reflection Questions for Journal Entry #2 (600-800 word).
1) Please explain when and what influenced the recognition of child sexual abuse on a large scale.
2) Please describe at least four characteristics of perpetrators that are associated with child maltreatment and cite relevant statistics or studies related to these.
3) Please discuss three different kinds of developmental and follow-up effects of child physical abuse on victims.
4) How has this book helped you to to understand child sexual abuse and the physical abuse of children? What have you learned?
According to the Florida Department of Children and Families Operating Procedure 170-4 (Child Maltreatment Index), abuse is defined as: Abuse. Any willful act or threatened act that results in any physical, mental or sexual abuse, injury or harm that causes or is likely to cause a child’s physical, mental or emotional health to be significantly impaired. Abuse of a child includes acts or omissions. Corporal discipline of a child by a parent or legal custodian for disciplinary purposes does not in itself constitute abuse when it does not result in harm to the child. (Section 39.01(2), F.S.)
Physical Injury includes a willfully inflicted physical injury to a child that results in temporary or permanent disfigurement, temporary or permanent loss or impairment of a bodily part or function, or is an action that is likely to cause a physical injury, a threat to a child’s safety or a real, plausible and significant threat to the child’s physical, mental or emotional health.
Definitions of injuries covered in “Physical Injury” are as follows:
• Bite: A wound, bruise, cut or indentation in the skin caused by seizing, piercing or cutting skin with teeth.
• Bruise: An injury resulting from bleeding within the skin where the skin is discolored but not broken.
• Cut: An opening, incision or break in the skin made by some external agent.
• Dislocation: Displacement of any body part, especially the temporary displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint.
• Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy or Factitious Disorder: A form of child abuse in which a parent induces real or apparent symptoms of a disease in a child.
• Oral Injury: Injuries to the mouth, including broken teeth from a willful act.
• Puncture: An opening in the skin which is relatively small as compared to the depth, as produced by a narrow, pointed object.
• Welt: An elevation on the skin that can be produced by a lash or blow. The skin is not broken, and the mark is reversible.
Examples of Maltreatment:
• Pushing a child’s head against the wall
• Punching a child in the stomach with or without a visible injury
• A parent biting his/her child
• Forcing a bottle into a newborn’s mouth, breaking the frenulum
• Punching a child in the mouth, causing extraction of teeth
• Forcefully kicking a child, particularly in the abdomen, thoracic, cranial, or renal areas of the body.
Sexual abuse is sexual contact with a child by the parent(s), legal guardian(s) or caregiver(s). Sexual Battery is conduct involving the oral, anal or vaginal penetration by, or union with, the sexual organ of a child; the forcing or allowing a child to perform oral, anal or vaginal penetration on another person; or the anal or vaginal penetration of another person by any object. This includes digital penetration, oral sex (cunnilingus, fellatio), coitus, and copulation.
Sexual Molestation is the intentional touching of the genitals or intimate parts, including the breasts, genital area, groin, inner thighs, and buttocks, or the clothing covering them, of either the child or the perpetrator, except that this does not include:
• Any act which may reasonably be construed to be a normal caregiver responsibility,
interaction with, or affection for a child; or
• Any act intended for a valid medical purpose.
Sexual Exploitation is any other sexual act intentionally perpetrated in the presence of a child, if such exposure or sexual act is for the purpose of sexual arousal or gratification, aggression, degradation, or other similar purpose.
Factors for Child Welfare Professionals to Consider in Assessment of Maltreatment:
• If there is another adult in the home, does the reporter think this adult household member is able to protect the child?
• Describe the sexual activity or the explicit sexual material to which the child is/was exposed.
• Describe how, when and where the parent/legal guardian or caregiver exposed the child to sexual activity or explicit sexual material.
• Describe how the caregiver failed to take actions to prevent the child from observing the sexual activity or explicit sexual materials.
• Is the child being used for the adult parent/legal guardian/caregiver’s sexual arousal, advantage or profit?
• Does the child have a sexually transmitted infection? (Generally, children under the age of 10 are presumed to be less sexually active and less exposed to persons outside the household environment.)
• Did the caregiver(s) expose his/her sexual organs to a child in a way that is inappropriate or appears to be for sexual gratification?
• Has one child in the home been sexually abused by the caregiver(s)? Are there siblings in the home who may also be victims?
• Did the caregiver(s) sexually abuse a child? Does the caregiver who sexually abused a child also have other children living in the household who are the same sex and of similar age or physical development to the original child victim?
• What is the extent of the other caregiver’s knowledge of the situation, including whether the other caregiver was present or also actively participating?
• Is there prior sexual abuse history involving the child or the caregiver(s)?
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