Reading is vital to an individual’s ability to understand their internal and external environments. Therefore, unskilled readers must get an opportunity to improve their reading. Learners have different ability levels and experiences. As they grow older, the gap between non-proficient and skilled readers grows. It makes it hard for struggling students to catch up with others (Weiser & Mathes, 2011). According to Goddard et al. (2015), approximately 67 percent of struggling readers in grade 3 continue to face academic problems even in high school. Individuals understand the world around them and how they fit in through text. If a learner still faces reading difficulties in the intermediate grades, they cannot incorporate contextual information. Applying contextual information is essential in creating a knowledge base (Weiser & Mathes, 2011). In middle school, learners get little to no direct literacy education even when a need exists. As a result, such students often fail to succeed in their higher education and careers. This study aims to determine the most effective classroom intervention for students who lack reading proficiency in the upper elementary level.
Most elementary school children start their careers curious to learn essential skills and concepts required in each academic year. Apart from learning math and language, they must develop age-appropriate scientific methods through inquiry, observation, and experiments. Knowledge is vital in developing problem-solving skills and high-level thinking ability (Noel & Liu, 2016). Besides, they must start learning, developing, and applying 21-century abilities such as creative and critical thinking. STEM instruction can help learners achieve these skills. However, elementary learners are not evaluated on comprehensive science understanding until fifth grade in most cases. According to Kurup et al. (2019), STEM instruction and learning should start in elementary school to create interest in students. A strong scientific knowledge base can help children succeed as they encounter more sophisticated science concepts and focus on STEM-related careers. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of STEM equipment in science learning among fourth-grade learners.
Goddard, Y., Goddard, R., & Kim, M. (2015). School instructional climate and student achievement: An examination of group norms for differentiated instruction. American Journal of Education, 122(1), 111-131.
Kurup, P. M., Li, X., Powell, G., & Brown, M. (2019). Building future primary teachers’ capacity in STEM: Based on a platform of beliefs, understandings and intentions. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1).
Noel, L.-A., & Liu, T. L. (2016). Using design thinking to create a new education paradigm for elementary level children for higher student engagement and success. DRS2016: Future-Focused Thinking,1-12.
Weiser, B., & Mathes, P. (2011). Using encoding instruction to improve the reading and spelling performances of elementary students at risk for literacy difficulties. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 170-200.
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