I need you to write a discussion and then. reply for these two posts. For the discussion I need at least 500 min word and for the reply t least 350 words.
After watching the presentation on tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, research and submit either (A) another type of tissue that has been regenerated (one not discussed in the presentation), or (B) an advance in some aspect of this field (a new type of bio-scaffold, a new method for seeding cells, etc.). Include how this therapy compares to the regenerative power of the Holy Spirit in an individual’s life (II Corinthians 5:17).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2020). Many common lung disorders are characterized as progressive and irreversible. Three common lung disorders that have no current cure are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis. COPD can occur in two forms emphysema and chronic bronchitis (Wang et al. 2018). In emphysema, the alveoli of the lungs are permanently damaged resulting in loss of surface area which reduces gas exchange. In cases of chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, the bronchi of the lungs become permanently enlarged due to recurring inflammation. Pulmonary fibrosis is another irreversible lung disorder caused by scarred or damaged lungs. These disorders all have two things in common there is no cure and they are permanent. While these disorders would lead most to believe lung tissue is very susceptible to injury and has limited capacity to repair itself research conducted in 2018 argues otherwise (Leach et al. 2018). The lungs utilize facultative regeneration for self-renewal. Facultative regeneration is the process by which tissue is repaired when fully differential cells are allowed to re-enter the cell cycle (Tebyanian 2019). Once the cells re-enter the cell cycle they can proliferate and differentiate; this mechanism is helpful but limited in its capacity to resolve recurring problems, or damage to large segments of the lungs caused by disorders such as the three listed above. In many of the disorders previously listed (depending on the severity), a lung transplant might be the only treatment option for the patient. However, lung transplants have their own set of complications for the patient such as affordability, shortages, the viability of the organ, and if the body will reject the foreign organ. Tissue engineering has become a promising idea to combat the growing need for lung treatments (Kotton et al. 2014).
Tissue engineering of the lungs has risen in popularity among researchers, with many developments improving decellularization and recellularization of lung scaffolds. As of 2020 all attempts at transplantation in mice models have led to rapid organ failure (Tsuchiya et al. 2020). The main problem with current lung tissue engineering is that the vasculature of the organ results in significant blood clot formation and eventual organ failure. The immature pulmonary vasculature has been difficult to reconstruct due to the required characteristics such as being easily expandable and having high compliance to accommodate the lungs. Various Japanese institution researchers have attempted to address the problem by reconstructing the mature vasculature of the lungs. The researchers first identified the biomaterial of the vascular niche such as pericytes, ECM, and endothelial cells. The researchers then recreated the vascular niche of the organ focusing on microvasculature for the scaffold. The purpose of the research design was to determine if lung transplantation would be successful if the lung’s microvasculature is engineered. The researchers determined that other issues arise such as capillary leaks and further testing must be conducted (Tsuchiya et al. 2020). While this leaves lung tissue engineering still in development engineering parts of the organ in 10 years is an incredible feat.
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