Physical Dependence

To earn full credit, you need to answer each of the questions correctly and fully with substance making at least 2 reference in addition to the unit material, text, or other academic source, and meet the length requirement of 200-350 words minimum. Your responses should be clearly written and consist of original ideas rather than a recap of what others contribute. Avoid “great post”. If you agree, support your agreement in your own words. Do not repeat the questions!

Discussion Guidelines: To allow other students time to respond, you must post your initial response (primary post) on the discussion topic between Thursday and Saturday each week. For example, your first post is due no later than Saturday. (Thursday is the suggested day to submit your primary post). Comment to other student’ posts are due by Tuesday 8:00 am. Reminder: Review Weekly Discussion Participation and Grading Form & APA Style-Format. You may use subheadings and respond in a narrative format (paragraphs).

As noted in your text, many of those who use anabolic steroids do so because they believe that it is necessary for them to do so since the competition is assumed to be abusing these compounds. This attitude has resulted in high school football coaches occasionally being charged with the crime of either advocating, or in some cases even providing, anabolic steroids to the adolescents under their supervision, to gain an advantage over the competition.

In professional athletics, there is an ongoing “arms race” between those who seek to abuse such compounds to enhance athletic performance, and regulatory agencies who seek to detect the use of such compounds, since their use has been deemed unacceptable. Athletes have been banned from competition because they were found to have evidence of anabolic steroids in their systems, and have been stripped of their titles. But there have been cases in which retrospective analysis of urine and blood samples submitted for testing by athletes at the time of their victories have after the development of more sophisticated test procedures been found to have evidence of anabolic steroids. In some cases, such discoveries were made years, or possibly even a decade, after the athlete won a competition. The question of whether to then strip those athletes of their titles is hotly debated by sports officials and fans.

Discussion Question # 1:

In the case of adolescent football players taking steroids, who should be held responsible? Should the adolescents receive the same punishment, as would a professional athlete? Please support your responses with what you have learned from reading the literature. You may also cite the film when appropriate

The myth of the need for professional smoking cessation programs: Many people believe that cigarette smokers cannot quit without professional assistance, and many pharmaceutical companies sell smoking cessation products to those who wish to quit. However, this belief is not supported by the clinical research, which finds that many, perhaps the majority, of former cigarette smokers, quit on their own. This therapeutic myth is based on two basic flaws in therapeutic reasoning: (1) These studies are based on a skewed or highly selective sample, and (2) is subject to selective perception.

The widespread availability of nicotine replacement products to assist the smoker in her or his cessation program only increases the number of former smokers who quit on their own. These nicotine replacement systems were once available only by prescription, but have now been reclassified as safe for over-the-counter use. Such products will assist smokers (whether in treatment or not) to gradually reduce their physical dependence on nicotine. However, self-quitters who resort to nicotine replacement products, or those who quit without the use of such products, will not come to the attention of health care professionals who deal with cigarette smoking.

Discussion Questions # 2

Who benefits by the belief that smokers cannot quit on their own? How do they benefit?

According to your reading, who is hurt by this belief? How?

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